On Oct. 17, 1961, because the eight-year battle was nearing its finish, Algerian National Liberation Front independence fighters referred to as on Algerians in Paris to prepare a peaceable march to protest a nightly curfew that was being imposed on them after a spate of lethal assaults on French cops.
About 20,000 to 30,000 people turned up, and the police crushed the march earlier than it might even start. They arrested 12,000 protesters, beat some to dying, and shot or threw others into the Seine River, the place they drowned.
For a number of weeks, unidentified corpses have been discovered alongside the river banks.
In addition to the handfuls killed that evening, many others fell sufferer to police raids and violence that had begun that September and continued for a number of days after the scheduled protests. Over that interval, historians estimate, the entire dying toll was 100 to 200 people.
Fabrice Riceputi, a historian of the Algerian War who has written concerning the killings, described the occasions of Oct. 17 as “a peak in a period of state terror that is inflicted on the colonized people.”
But for many years the French state maintained that the official dying toll was simply three.
It was solely within the Nineteen Nineties, after the groundbreaking work of the French historian Jean-Luc Einaudi, that the extent of the police’s actions started to be uncovered. His findings have been made public as a part of a trial wherein it was additionally dropped at mild that Maurice Papon, the Paris police chief who ordered the suppression of the protest, had earlier participated within the deportation of greater than 1,600 Jews throughout World War II.
“From the start, the government imposed silence,” Mr. Riceputi stated, including that it had blocked requires the creation of a parliamentary fee to research the killings, civil circumstances filed by Algerians in search of justice and entry to key archival paperwork.